Mastodons that once roamed (with very long fur not shown here) in Los Angeles during Ice Ages.
Malleus Maleficarum – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia(Der Hexenhammer in German) is a treatise on the prosecution of witches, written in 1486 by Heinrich Kramer, a German Catholic clergyman. The book was first published in Speyer, Germany, in 1487 (100 years into the deteriorating conditions of the Little Ice Age).
Malleus Maleficarum 1486:
“However, it has been found that witches have freely confessed that they have done such things, and there are various instances of it, which could be mentioned, in addition to what has already been said. Therefore it is reasonable to conclude that, just as easily as they raise hailstorms, so can they cause lightning and storms at sea; and so no doubt at all remains on these points. ”
The rulers of this planet have decided (now that the Pope is on board and happily circling the earth using fossil fuels like crazy) that we humans are going to doom humanity unless we repent our sins and stop consuming the magic stuff our rulers consume in tremendous, stupendous amounts: fossil fuels. Unashamed of their own consumption levels, they go about the place screaming about all this. Obama is a prime example. Right after telling us we are all going to roast to death if people fly huge private jets to Hawaii, he flew there yet again as he often does, to play golf with his rich buddies.
This insanity continues despite the collapse of the Paris weather talks. Everyone talks about the weather and can do nothing about it, of course. But the desire to tax thin air is very tempting and our rulers persist in doing this despite falling public desire to let them do this and I see a clash over this issue in the not-too-far future especially if we go yet again into yet another Little Ice Age cycle.
President Obama: 3 Year Moratorium on New Coal Mines because burning coal is going to roast us all to death somehow. I burn coal, by the way, when it is extremely cold here on my mountain. I haven’t burned much coal this year due to it being an el Nino year but even during a ‘warm’ winter up here, it still goes below zero during January and will do so yet again, this week as it did a week ago.
Aproxymations using all sorts of data to figure out past temperatures especially tree rings is bizarre since tree ring size is caused by how much water falls on trees as well as how warm or cold it is. All one can say is, ‘was this a good year for tree growth?’ Droughts can happen in cold summers, for example. Fat tree rings usually means happy times for everyone especially us since humans came out of the jungles of Africa two million years ago.
We know for a fact, just looking at the evolution of humans, that we are warm weather animals because we have little fur and the majority of this in on the top of our heads and it is thick and grows quite long including the beards which means we grew this to protect the top of our heads from warm rains or sunshine as well as being nearly totally naked.
We know there were massive repeated Ice Ages due to all sorts of clues in the geological landscape and that these Ice Ages shaped human evolution, too, as desperate humans took animal skins and used these as fur instead of re-evolving fur via natural selection. The sharp rise in temperatures during the repeated Interglacials were all times of ‘Garden of Eden’ life for the naked apes who very rapidly evolved big brains to deal with the challenges of severe climate change.
From the WUWT article above:
My conclusions from all of this:
• Transforming a dataset from tree ring widths in mm to temperatures in degrees C, thence to standard deviations, and finally back to degrees C, seems like a doubtful procedure.
• Without seeing the underlying data, it is hard to judge the full effects of what they have done. While having the normalized datasets is valuable, it cannot replace the actual underlying data.
• Whatever their iterative nested method might be doing, it’s not doing a whole lot.
• I do not know of any justification for normalizing the proxies before averaging them. They are already in degrees C. In addition, normalization greatly distorts the trends a time series, in a manner that depends on the exact shape and variance of the time series.
All of the fretting over slight (compared to the gross, huge leaps and falls in temperature during each Ice Age cycle) temperature changes during any Interglacial is silly. All Interglacials were much, much, tremendously shorter than any Ice Age and each Ice Age is somewhat nastier than previous Ice Ages and if all this has been caused by the joining of South America to North America disrupting the Pacific/Atlantic Ocean heat exchange system, then the solution is to eliminate Panama and thus stop this cycle process.
Using tree rings is good for figuring out if some period is a pleasant climate for plants but nothing else. The very worse droughts the planet has ever seen has been…during ICE AGES, not warm cycles. It is much colder and much of the available water is tied up in great ice sheets. Much of the Siberian and Alaskan tundra during Ice Ages were quite dry as well as slightly warmer than during Interglacial periods when it is warm during summer over much of Canada.
The riddle as to why most of Siberia and Alaska never see glaciation no matter how cold it is, is one that no one can fully explain. This shift of the center of Northern Hemisphere cold from Siberia/Alaska to Canada/northern US ice sheets and cold is the core of understanding Ice Ages. Antarctica and Greenland both are gripped in near-perpetual Ice Ages for over 2 million years and we don’t know why this began, either. We can suggest, for example, that this coincides with the closing of the mid-range ocean heat exchange cycles by Panama but this isn’t proven and it doesn’t explain the regular, periodic heat cycles that suddenly make the planet much, much warmer.
One of the readers at WUWT posted this, after an email exchange with one of the authors of the study of tree rings and global warming:
Old England January 16, 2016 at 2:13 am
When I read the extracts at BH it raised questions in my mind and I emailed Rob Wilson:
“I have just read the brief comment on your recent paper at BH and had a quick question from that.
I understand that you have used the datasets which you considered most robust going back over past centuries. I know from my own experience and observation from growing timber that temperature is just one of a number of factors which influence the rate of growth in trees and thus tree rings. Two simple examples are rainfall and cloud cover. Records of those seem, at best, patchy and generally non-existent for most of the period your study covers.
My main question is did you, in selecting datasets to use, assess the original studies to be certain that they had taken or were even able to take full account of all of those other factors which I believe have until quite recently been considered largely irrelevant in dendrochronology?
Are you able to point me towards any work which is able to explain how the growth rate of a tree 500 or 1000 years years ago can determined as being a result of temperature as opposed to rainfall levels, or reduced / increased sunlight from higher / lesser cloud cover, or a change in wind levels (perhaps due to abnormal jet stream positions) causing a degree of stunting / or preventing wind stunting for a year or two, or perhaps a 1 in 100 year flood that deposits nutrients enabling higher growth rates for a period of years thereafter ? The reason I ask is because data on those causes is typically unavailable and if there is a robust methodology for determining this I would be very interested to know and understand it.”
he kindly replied very promptly :
“You misunderstand the basics of dendro [climatology].
All trees are sampled in locations where tree growth is predominantly controlled by summer temperatures.
The residuals from the local scale modelling may represent “other” factors but are random over space and time When averaging over large regions, the “other” factors are further minimised by averaging
You cannot expect to get a temperature from a tree that is not growing in a temperature limited location.”
To which I replied and asked ” many thanks for such a prompt reply which is helpful as I try and get my head around some of this !
Temperature limited locations controlled by summer temperatures makes sense but is there a way to identify and exclude the other variants of cloud cover and rainfall at that location going back over the last thousand years ?”
[ I did not say that I actually do not understand how ‘locations controlled by summer temperature’ are determined – but you may have come across this….]
Rob Wilson again replied promptly :
“There is some debate about the effects of clouds on photosynthetic rates and a comparison between ring-width/density parameters and carbon isotopes is addressing that situation somewhat.
Brief take home story is that one of the reasons that ring-width is generally a poor proxy of temperature in this moist-temperature limited environments is that other factors are also impacting growth.
Density and related parameters are controlled almost entirely by summer temperatures in these environments.
It is far from perfect, but we state this in the paper – there are good reasons why we don’t explain 100% of the temperature variance.”
I didn’t have time to pursue this further but did briefly check out a few papers on variations in rates of photosynthesis [PS] related to cloud cover – there have been a number of studies. One using artificial light at times of cloud cover found a 25% increase in PS in the illuminated leaves; conifers may respond differently to deciduous.
Anyway the above may be of interest.
The other problem with Obama’s sudden move to UNILATERALLY prevent exploitation of coal reserves is that he did it via fiat. This is supposed to be a democracy. Even bad decisions have to be made by the collective, not a Dear Leader. By circumventing Congress, he is going against the will of the voters. This is wrong. He has to persuade the voters he is right, not order us around.
The Greens want a dictatorship as do right wing lunatics. Both extremes of the political spectrum desire total domination of citizens because then they can order us to do things that harm or upset us and then persecute or kill anyone who resists their demands. This is why fascist/communist rulers are so cruel and destructive. The lust to tax thin air and give back nothing is very powerful lure for our present rulers but they are fools because anyone who subscribes to their belief systems they are displaying MUST arrest and or execute all of these rich powerful people flying around in their private jets and living in huge palaces.
This logic fails our rulers who cannot see the end result of their propaganda push. They, themselves, are the ‘pure evil’ they rail against. Obama should be ashamed of himself, flying to Paris to wail about the weather and then flying off to Hawaii just so he can play golf in the warm sun. This is totally disgusting to watch. Shame of him, huge shame on him.
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